A. Man’s chief and highest end is to glorify God,1 and fully to enjoy him forever.2
1. Romans 11:36
2. Psalm 73:24-28
A. The very light of nature in man, and the works of God, declare plainly that there is a God;1 but his Word and Spirit only do sufficiently and effectually reveal him unto men for their salvation.2
(1) Romans 1:19-20; Psalm 19:1-3; Acts 17:28.
(2) 1 Corinthians 2:9-10; 2 Timothy 3:15-17; Isaiah 59:21.
A. The holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testament are the Word of God,1 the only rule of faith and obedience.2
- 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Peter 1:19-21;
- Ephesians 2:20; Revelation 22:18-19; Isaiah 8:20; Luke 16:29, 31; Galatians 1:8-9; 2 Timothy 3:15-16.
A. The Scriptures manifest themselves to be the Word of God, by their majesty1 and purity;2 by the consent of all the parts,3 and the scope of the whole, which is to give all glory to God;4 by their light and power to convince and convert sinners, to comfort and build up believers unto salvation:5 but the Spirit of God bearing witness by and with the Scriptures in the heart of man, is alone able fully to persuade it that they are the very word of God.6
- Hosea 8:12; 1 Corinthians 2:6-7, 13; Psalm 119:18, 129.
- Psalm 12:6; Psalm 119:140.
- Acts 10:43; Acts 26:22.
- Romans 3:19, 27.
- Acts 18:28; Hebrews 4:12; James 1:18; Psalm 19:7-9; Romans 15:4; Acts 20:32.
- John 16:13-14; 1 John 2:20, 27; John 20:31.
A. The Scriptures principally teach, what man is to believe concerning God, and what duty God requires of man.1
- 2 Timothy 1:13.
A. The Scriptures make known what God is,1 the persons in the Godhead,2 his decrees,3 and the execution of his decrees.4
- Hebrews 11:6.
- Matthew 3:16-17.
- Acts 15:14-15, 17-18; Isaiah 46:9–10.
- Acts 4:27-28.
A. God is a Spirit,1 in and of himself infinite in being,2 glory,3 blessedness,4 and perfection;5 all-sufficient,6 eternal,7 unchangeable,8 incomprehensible,9 every where present,10 almighty,11 knowing all things,12 most wise,13 most holy,14 most just,15 most merciful and gracious, long-suffering, and abundant in goodness and truth.16
- John 4:24.
- Exodus 3:14; Job 11:7-9.
- Acts 7:2.
- 1 Timothy 6:15.
- Matthew 5:48.
- Genesis 17:1.
- Psalm 90:2.
- Malachi 3:6.
- 1 Kings 8:27.
- Psalm 139:1-13.
- Revelation 4:8.
- Hebrews 4:13; Psalm 147:5.
- Romans 16:27.
- Isaiah 6:3; Revelation 15:4.
- Deuteronomy 32:4.
- Exodus 34:6.
A. There is but one only, the living and true God.1
- Deuteronomy 6:4; 1 Corinthians 8:4, 6; Jeremiah 10:10.
A. There be three persons in the Godhead, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit; and these three are one true, eternal God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory; although distinguished by their personal properties.1
- Matthew 3:16-17; Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14; John 10:30.
A. It is proper to the Father to beget the Son,1 and to the Son to be begotten of the Father,2 and to the Holy Spirit to proceed from the Father and the Son from all eternity.3
- Hebrews 1:5-6, 8.
- John 1:14, 18.
- John 15:26; Galatians 4:6.
A. The Scriptures manifest that the Son and the Holy Spirit are God equal with the Father, ascribing unto them such names,1 attributes,2 works,3 and worship,4 as are proper to God only.
- Isaiah 6:3, 5, 8; John 12:41; Acts 28:25; 1 John 5:20; Acts 5:3-4.
- John 1:1; Isaiah 9:6; John 2:24-25; 1 Corinthians 2:10-11.
- Colossians 1:16; Genesis 1:2.
- Matthew 28:19; 2 Corinthians 13:14.
A. God's decrees are the wise, free, and holy acts of the counsel of his will,1 whereby, from all eternity, he hath, for his own glory, unchangeably foreordained whatsoever comes to pass in time,2 especially concerning angels and men.
- Ephesians 1:11; Romans 11:33; Romans 9:14-15, 18.
- Ephesians 1:4, 11; Romans 9:22-23; Psalm 33:11.
A. God, by an eternal and immutable decree, out of his mere love, for the praise of his glorious grace, to be manifested in due time, hath elected some angels to glory;1 and in Christ hath chosen some men to eternal life, and the means thereof:2 and also, according to his sovereign power, and the unsearchable counsel of his own will, (whereby he extendeth or withholdeth favor as he pleaseth,) hath passed by and foreordained the rest to dishonor and wrath, to be for their sin inflicted, to the praise of the glory of his justice.3
- 1 Timothy 5:21.
- Ephesians 1:4-6; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14.
- Romans 9:17-18, 21-22; Matthew 11:25-26; 2 Timothy 2:20; Jude 4; 1 Peter 2:8.
A. God executeth his decrees in the works of creation and providence, according to his infallible foreknowledge, and the free and immutable counsel of his own will.1
- Ephesians 1:11.
A. The work of creation is that wherein God did in the beginning, by the word of his power, make of nothing the world, and all things therein, for himself, within the space of six days, and all very good.1
- Genesis 1:1; Hebrews 11:3; Proverbs 16:4.
A. God created all the angels1 spirits,2 immortal,3 holy,4 excelling in knowledge,5 mighty in power,6 to execute his commandments, and to praise his name,7 yet subject to change.8
- Colossians 1:16.
- Psalm 104:4.
- Matthew 22:30.
- Matthew 25:31.
- 2 Samuel 14:17; Matthew 24:36.
- 2 Thessalonians 1:7.
- Psalm 103:20-21.
- 2 Peter 2:4.
A. After God had made all other creatures, he created man male and female;1 formed the body of the man of the dust of the ground,2 and the woman of the rib of the man,3 endued them with living, reasonable, and immortal souls;4 made them after his own image,5 in knowledge,6 righteousness, and holiness;7 having the law of God written in their hearts,8 and power to fulfill it,9 and dominion over the creatures;10 yet subject to fall.11
- Genesis 1:27.
- Genesis 2:7.
- Genesis 2:22.
- Genesis 2:7; Job 35:11; Ecclesiastes 12:7; Matthew 10:28; Luke 23:43.
- Genesis 1:27.
- Colossians 3:10.
- Ephesians 4:24.
- Romans 2:14-15.
- Ecclesiastes 7:29.
- Genesis 1:28.
- Genesis 3:6; Ecclesiastes 7:29.
A. God's works of providence are his most holy,1 wise,2 and powerful preserving3 and governing4 all his creatures; ordering them, and all their actions,5 to his own glory.6
- Psalm 145:17.
- Psalm 104:24; Isaiah 28:29.
- Hebrews 1:3.
- Psalm 103:19.
- Matthew 10:29-31; Genesis 45:7.
- Romans 11:36; Isaiah 63:14.
A. God by his providence permitted some of the angels, willfully and irrecoverably, to fall into sin and damnation,1 limiting and ordering that, and all their sins, to his own glory;2 and established the rest in holiness and happiness;3 employing them all,4 at his pleasure, in the administrations of his power, mercy, and justice.5
- Jude 6; 2 Peter 2:4; Hebrews 2:16; John 8:44.
- Job 1:12; Matthew 8:31.
- 1 Timothy 5:21; Mark 8:38; Hebrews 12:22.
- Psalm 104:4.
- 2 Kings 19:35.
- Hebrews 1:14.
A. The providence of God toward man in the estate in which he was created, was the placing him in paradise, appointing him to dress it, giving him liberty to eat of the fruit of the earth;1 putting the creatures under his dominion,2 and ordaining marriage for his help;3 affording him communion with himself;4 instituting the sabbath;5 entering into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of personal, perfect, and perpetual obedience,6 of which the tree of life was a pledge;7 and forbidding to eat of the tree of knowledge of good and evil, upon the pain of death.8
- Genesis 2:8, 15-16.
- Genesis 1:28.
- Genesis 2:18.
- Genesis 1:26-29; Genesis 3:8.
- Genesis 2:3.
- Galatians 3:12; Romans 10:5.
- Genesis 2:9.
- Genesis 2:17.
A. Our first parents being left to the freedom of their own will, through the temptation of Satan, transgressed the commandment of God in eating the forbidden fruit; and thereby fell from the estate of innocency wherein they were created.1
- Genesis 3:6-8, 13.
A. The covenant being made with Adam as a public person, not for himself only, but for his posterity, all mankind descending from him by ordinary generation,1 sinned in him, and fell with him in that first transgression.2
- Acts 17:26.
- Genesis 2:16-17; Romans 5:12-20; 1 Corinthians 15:21-22.
A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery.1
- Romans 5:12.
A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, any law of God, given as a rule to the reasonable creature.1
- 1 John 3:4; Galatians 3:10, 12.
A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam's first sin,1 the want of that righteousness wherein he was created, and the corruption of his nature, whereby he is utterly indisposed, disabled, and made opposite unto all that is spiritually good, and wholly inclined to all evil, and that continually;2 which is commonly called original sin, and from which do proceed all actual transgressions.3
- Romans 5:12, 19.
- Romans 3:10-19; Ephesians 2:1-3; Romans 5:6; Romans 8:7-8; Genesis 6:5.
- James 1:14-15; Matthew 15:19.
A. Original sin is conveyed from our first parents unto their posterity by natural generation, so as all that proceed from them in that way are conceived and born in sin.1
- Psalm 51:5; Job 14:4; John 3:6.
A. The fall brought upon mankind the loss of communion with God,1 his displeasure and curse; so as we are by nature children of wrath,2 bond slaves to Satan,3 and justly liable to all punishments in this world, and that which is to come.4
- Genesis 3:8, 10, 24.
- Ephesians 2:2-3.
- 2 Timothy 2:26.
- Genesis 2:17; Lamentations 3:39; Romans 6:23; Matthew 25:41, 46; Jude 7.
A. The punishments of sin in this world are either inward, as blindness of mind,1 a reprobate sense,2 strong delusions,3 hardness of heart,4 horror of conscience,5 and vile affections;6 or outward, as the curse of God upon the creatures of our sakes,7 and all other evils that befall us in our bodies, names, estates, relations, and employments;8 together with death itself.9
- Ephesians 4:18.
- Romans 1:28.
- 2 Thessalonians 2:11.
- Romans 2:5.
- Isaiah 33:14; Genesis 4:13; Matthew 27:4.
- Romans 1:26.
- Genesis 3:17.
- Deuteronomy 28:15-18.
- Romans 6:21, 23.
A. The punishments of sin in the world to come, are everlasting separation from the comfortable presence of God, and most grievous torments in soul and body, without intermission, in hell-fire forever.1
- 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Mark 9:43-44, 48; Luke 16:24.
A. God doth not leave all men to perish in the estate of sin and misery,1 into which they fell by the breach of the first covenant, commonly called the covenant of works;2 but of his mere love and mercy delivereth his elect out of it, and bringeth them into an estate of salvation by the second covenant, commonly called the covenant of grace.3
- 1 Thessalonians 5:9.
- Galatians 3:10, 12.
- Titus 3:4-7; Galatians 3:21; Romans 3:20-22.
A. The covenant of grace was made with Christ as the second Adam, and in him with all the elect as his seed.1
- Galatians 3:16; Romans 5:15-21; Isaiah 53:10-11.
A. The grace of God is manifested in the second covenant, in that he freely provideth and offereth to sinners a Mediator,1 and life and salvation by him;2 and requiring faith as the condition to interest them in him,3 promiseth and giveth his Holy Spirit4 to all his elect, to work in them that faith,5 with all other saving graces;6 and to enable them unto all holy obedience,7 as the evidence of the truth of their faith8 and thankfulness to God,9 and as the way which he hath appointed them to salvation.10
- Genesis 3:15; Isaiah 42:6; John 6:27.
- 1 John 5:11-12.
- John 3:16; John 1:12.
- Proverbs 1:23.
- 2 Corinthians 4:13.
- Galatians 5:22-23.
- Ezekiel 36:27.
- James 2:18, 22.
- 2 Corinthians 5:14-15.
- Ephesians 2:18.
A. The covenant of grace was not always administered after the same manner, but the administrations of it under the Old Testament were different from those under the New.1
- 2 Corinthians 3:6-9.
A. The covenant of grace was administered under the Old Testament, by promises,1 prophecies,2 sacrifices,3 circumcision,4 the passover,5 and other types and ordinances, which did all fore-signify Christ then to come, and were for that time sufficient to build up the elect in faith in the promised Messiah,6 by whom they then had full remission of sin, and eternal salvation.7
- Romans 15:8.
- Acts 3:20, 24.
- Hebrews 10:1.
- Romans 4:11.
- 1 Corinthians 5:7.
- Hebrews 11:13.
- Galatians 3:7-9, 14.
A. Under the New Testament, when Christ the substance was exhibited, the same covenant of grace was and still is to be administered in the preaching of the Word,1 and the administration of the sacraments of Baptism2 and the Lord's Supper;3 in which grace and salvation are held forth in more fullness, evidence, and efficacy, to all nations.4
- Mark 16:15.
- Matthew 28:19-20.
- 1 Corinthians 11:23-25.
- 2 Corinthians 3:6-9; Hebrews 8:6, 10-11.
A. The only Mediator of the covenant of grace is the Lord Jesus Christ,1 who, being the eternal Son of God, of one substance and equal with the Father,2 in the fulness of time became man,3 and so was and continues to be God and man, in two entire distinct natures, and one person, forever.4
- 1 Timothy 2:5.
- John 1:1, 14; John 10:30.
- Galatians 4:4.
- Luke 1:35; Romans 9:5; Colossians 2:9; Hebrews 7:24-25.
A. Christ the Son of God became man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul,1 being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost in the womb of the virgin Mary, of her substance, and born of her,2 yet without sin.3
- John 1:14; Matthew 26:38.
- Luke 1:27, 31, 35, 42; Galatians 4:4.
- Hebrews 4:15; Hebrews 7:26.
A. It was requisite that the Mediator should be God, that he might sustain and keep the human nature from sinking under the infinite wrath of God, and the power of death,1 give worth and efficacy to his sufferings, obedience, and intercession;2 and to satisfy God's justice,3 procure his favour,4 purchase a peculiar people,5 give his Spirit to them,6 conquer all their enemies,7 and bring them to everlasting salvation.8
- Acts 2:24-25; Romans 1:4; Romans 4:25; Hebrews 9:14.
- Acts 20:28; Hebrews 9:14; Hebrews 7:25-28.
- Romans 3:24-26.
- Ephesians 1:6; Matthew 3:17.
- Titus 2:13-14.
- Galatians 4:6.
- Luke 1:68-69, 71, 74.
- Hebrews 5:8-9; Hebrews 9:11-15.
A. It was requisite that the Mediator should be man, that he might advance our nature,1 perform obedience to the law,2 suffer and make intercession for us in our nature,3 have a fellow-feeling of our infirmities;4 that we might receive the adoption of sons,5 and have comfort and access with boldness unto the throne of grace.6
- 2 Peter 1:4.
- Galatians 4:4.
- Hebrews 2:14; Hebrews 7:24-25.
- Hebrews 4:15.
- Galatians 4:5.
- Hebrews 4:16.
A. It was requisite that the Mediator, who was to reconcile God and man, should himself be both God and man, and this in one person, that the proper works of each nature might be accepted of God for us,1 and relied on by us as the works of the whole person.2
- Matthew 1:21, 23; Matthew 3:17; Hebrews 9:14.
- 1 Peter 2:6.
A. Our Mediator was called Jesus, because he saves his people from their sins.1
- Matthew 1:21
A. Our Mediator was called Christ, because he was anointed with the Holy Ghost above measure,1 and so set apart, and fully furnished with all authority and ability,2 to execute the offices of prophet,3 priest,4 and king of his church,5 in the estate both of his humiliation and exaltation.
- John 3:34; Psalm 45:7.
- John 6:27; Matthew 28:18-20.
- Acts 3:21-22; Luke 4:18, 21.
- Hebrews 5:5-7; Hebrews 4:14-15.
- Psalm 2:6; Matthew 21:5; Isaiah 9:6-7; Philippians 2:8-11.
A. Christ executes the office of a prophet, in his revealing to the church,1 in all ages, by his Spirit and Word,2 in diverse ways of administration,3 the whole will of God,4 in all things concerning their edification and salvation.5
- John 1:18.
- 1 Peter 1:10-12.
- Hebrews 1:1-2.
- John 15:15
- Acts 20:23; Ephesians 4:11-13; John 20:31
A. Christ executes the office of a priest, in his once offering himself a sacrifice without spot to God,1 to be reconciliation for the sins of his people;2 and in making continual intercession for them.3
- Hebrews 9:14, 28
- Hebrews 2:17
- Hebrews 7:25
A. Christ executes the office of a king, in calling out of the world a people to himself,1 and giving them officers,2 laws,3 and censures, by which he visibly governs them;4 in bestowing saving grace upon his elect,5 rewarding their obedience,6 and correcting them for their sins,7 preserving and supporting them under all their temptations and sufferings,8 restraining and overcoming all their enemies,9 and powerfully ordering all things for his own glory,10 and their good;11 and also in taking vengeance on the rest, who know not God, and obey not the gospel.12
- Acts 15:14-16; Genesis 49:10; Psalm 110:3
- Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Corinthians 12:28
- Isaiah 33:22
- Matthew 18:17-18; 1 Corinthians 5:4-5
- Acts 5:31
- Revelation 22:12; Revelation 2:10
- Revelation 3:19
- Isaiah 63:9
- 1 Corinthians 15:25; Psalm 110:1-2
- Romans 14:10-11
- Romans 8:28
- 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Psalm 2:8-9
A. The estate of Christ's humiliation was that low condition, in which he, for our sakes, emptying himself of his glory, took upon him the form of a servant, in his conception and birth, life, death, and after his death, until his resurrection.1
- Philippians 2:6-8; Luke 1:31; 2 Corinthians 8:9; Acts 2:24
A. Christ humbled himself in his conception and birth, in that, being from all eternity the Son of God, in the bosom of the Father, he was pleased in the fulness of time to become the son of man, made of a woman of low estate, and to be born of her; with divers circumstances of more than ordinary abasement.1
- John 1:14, 18; Galatians 4:4; Luke 2:7
A. Christ humbled himself in his life, by subjecting himself to the law,1 which he perfectly fulfilled;2 and by conflicting with the indignities of the world,3 temptations of Satan,4 and infirmities in his flesh, whether common to the nature of man, or particularly accompanying that his low condition.5
- Galatians 4:4
- Matthew 5:17; Romans 5:19
- Psalm 22:6; Hebrews 12:2-3
- Matthew 4:1-12; Luke 4:13
- Hebrews 2:17-18; Hebrews 4:15; Isaiah 52:13-14
A. Christ humbled himself in his death, in that having been betrayed by Judas,1 forsaken by his disciples,2 scorned and rejected by the world,3 condemned by Pilate, and tormented by his persecutors;4 having also conflicted with the terrors of death, and the powers of darkness, felt and borne the weight of God's wrath,5 he laid down his life an offering for sin,6 enduring the painful, shameful, and cursed death of the cross.7
- Matthew 27:4
- Matthew 26:56
- Isaiah 53:2-3
- Matthew 27:26-50; John 19:34
- Luke 22:44; Matthew 27:46
- Isaiah 53:10
- Philippians 2:8; Hebrews 12:2; Galatians 3:13
A. Christ's humiliation after his death consisted in his being buried,1 and continuing in the state of the dead, and under the power of death till the third day;2 which hath been otherwise expressed in these words, He descended into hell.
- 1 Corinthians 15:3-4
- Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:24-27, 31; Romans 6:9; Matthew 12:40
A. The estate of Christ’s exaltation comprehends his resurrection,1 ascension,2 sitting at the right hand of the Father,3 and his coming again to judge the world.4
- 1 Corinthians 15:4
- Mark 16:19
- Ephesians 1:20
- Acts 1:11; Acts 17:31
A. Christ was exalted in his resurrection, in that, not having seen corruption in death (of which it was not possible for him to be held),1 and having the very same body in which he suffered, with the essential properties thereof2 (but without mortality, and other common infirmities belonging to this life), really united to his soul,3 he rose again from the dead the third day by his own power;4 whereby he declared himself to be the Son of God,5 to have satisfied divine justice,6 to have vanquished death, and him that had the power of it,7 and to be Lord of the living and the dead:8 all which he did as a public person,9 the head of his church,10 for their justification,11 quickening in grace,12 support against enemies,13 and to assure them of their resurrection from the dead at the last day.14
- Acts 2:24, 27
- Luke 24:39
- Romans 6:9; Revelation 1:18
- John 10:18
- Romans 1:4
- Romans 8:34
- Hebrews 2:14
- Romans 14:9
- 1 Corinthians 15:21-22
- Ephesians 1:20-23; Colossians 1:18
- Romans 4:25
- Ephesians 2:1, 5-6; Colossians 2:12
- 1 Corinthians 15:25-27
- 1 Corinthians 15:20
A. Christ was exalted in his ascension, in that having after his resurrection often appeared unto and conversed with his apostles, speaking to them of the things pertaining to the kingdom of God,1 and giving them commission to preach the gospel to all nations,2 forty days after his resurrection, he, in our nature, and as our head,3 triumphing over enemies,4 visibly went up into the highest heavens, there to receive gifts for men,5 to raise up our affections thither,6 and to prepare a place for us,7 where he himself is, and shall continue till his second coming at the end of the world.8
- Acts 1:2-3
- Matthew 28:19-20
- Hebrews 6:20
- Ephesians 4:8
- Acts 1:9-11; Ephesians 4:10; Psalm 68:18
- Colossians 3:1-2
- John 14:3
- Acts 3:21
A. Christ is exalted in his sitting at the right hand of God, in that as God-man he is advanced to the highest favour with God the Father,1 with all fullness of joy,2 glory,3 and power over all things in heaven and earth;4 and does gather and defend his church, and subdue their enemies; furnishes his ministers and people with gifts and graces,5 and makes intercession for them.6
- Philippians 2:9
- Acts 2:28; Psalm 16:11
- John 17:5
- Ephesians 1:22; 1 Peter 3:22
- Ephesians 4:10-12; Psalm 110:1
- Romans 8:34
A. Christ makes intercession, by his appearing in our nature continually before the Father in heaven,1 in the merit of his obedience and sacrifice on earth,2 declaring his will to have it applied to all believers;3 answering all accusations against them,4 and procuring for them quiet of conscience, notwithstanding daily failings,5 access with boldness to the throne of grace,6 and acceptance of their persons7 and services.8
- Hebrews 9:12, 24
- Hebrews 1:3
- John 3:16; John 17:9, 20, 24
- Romans 8:33-34
- Romans 5:1-2; 1 John 2:1-2
- Hebrews 4:16
- Ephesians 1:6
- 1 Peter 2:5
A. Christ is to be exalted in his coming again to judge the world, in that he, who was unjustly judged and condemned by wicked men,1 shall come again at the last day in great power,2 and in the full manifestation of his own glory, and of his Father’s, with all his holy angels,3 with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God,4 to judge the world in righteousness.5
- Acts 3:14-15
- Matthew 24:30
- Luke 9:26; Matthew 25:31
- 1 Thessalonians 4:16
- Acts 17:31
A. Christ, by his mediation, hath procured redemption,1 with all other benefits of the covenant of grace.2
- Hebrews 9:12
- 2 Corinthians 1:20
A. We are made partakers of the benefits which Christ has procured, by the application of them unto us,1 which is the work especially of God the Holy Ghost.2
- John 1:11-12
- Titus 3:5-6
A. Redemption is certainly applied, and effectually communicated, to all those for whom Christ hath purchased it;1 who are in time by the Holy Ghost enabled to believe in Christ according to the gospel.2
- Ephesians 1:13-14; John 6:37, 39; John 10:15-16
- Ephesians 2:8; 2 Corinthians 4:13
A. They who, having never heard the gospel,1 know not Jesus Christ,2 and believe not in him, cannot be saved,3 be they never so diligent to frame their lives according to the light of nature,4 or the laws of that religion which they profess;5 neither is there salvation in any other, but in Christ alone,6 who is the Savior only of his body the church.7
- Romans 10:14
- 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Ephesians 2:12; John 1:10-12
- John 8:24; Mark 16:16
- 1 Corinthians 1:20-24
- John 4:22; Romans 9:31-32; Philippians 3:4-9
- Acts 4:12
- Ephesians 5:23
A. All that hear the gospel, and live in the visible church, are not saved; but they only who are true members of the church invisible.1
- John 12:38-40; Romans 9:6; Matthew 22:14; Matthew 7:21; Romans 11:7
A. The visible church is a society made up of all such as in all ages and places of the world do profess the true religion,1 and of their children.2
- 1 Corinthians 1:2; 1 Corinthians 12:13 Romans 15:9-12; Revelation 7:9; Psalm 2:8; Psalm 22:27-31; Psalm 45:17; Matthew 28:19-20; Isaiah 59:21
- 1 Corinthians 7:14; Acts 2:39; Romans 11:16; Genesis 17:7
A. The visible church has the privilege of being under God’s special care and government;1 of being protected and preserved in all ages, notwithstanding the opposition of all enemies;2 and of enjoying the communion of saints, the ordinary means of salvation,3 and offers of grace by Christ to all the members of it in the ministry of the gospel, testifying, that whosoever believes in him shall be saved,4 and excluding none that will come unto him.5
- Isaiah 9:5-6; 1 Timothy 4:10
- Psalm 115:1-2, 9; Isaiah 31:4-5; Zechariah 12:2-4, 8-9
- Acts 2:39, 42
- Psalm 147:19-20; Romans 9:4; Ephesians 4:11-12; Mark 16:15-16
- John 6:37
A. The invisible church is the whole number of the elect, that have been, are, or will be gathered into one under Christ the head.1
- Ephesians 1:10; Ephesians 1:22-23; John 10:16; John 11:52
A. The members of the invisible church by Christ enjoy union and communion with him in grace and glory.1
- John 17:21; Ephesians 2:5-6; John 17:24
A. The union which the elect have with Christ is the work of God’s grace,1 whereby they are spiritually and mystically, yet really and inseparably, joined to Christ as their head and husband;2 which is done in their effectual calling.3
- Ephesians 1:22; Ephesians 2:6-7
- 1 Corinthians 6:17; John 10:28; Ephesians 5:23, 30
- 1 Peter 5:10; 1 Corinthians 1:9
A. Effectual calling is the work of God’s almighty power and grace,1 whereby (out of his free and special love to his elect, and from nothing in them moving him thereunto)2 he doth, in his accepted time, invite and draw them to Jesus Christ, by his Word and Spirit;3 savingly enlightening their minds,4 renewing and powerfully determining their wills,5 so as they (although in themselves dead in sin) are hereby made willing and able freely to answer his call, and to accept and embrace the grace offered and conveyed therein.6
- John 5:25; Ephesians 1:18-20; 2 Timothy 1:8-9
- Titus 3:4-5; Ephesians 2:4-5, 7-9; Romans 9:11
- 2 Corinthians 5:20; 2 Corinthians 6:1-2; John 6:44; 2 Thessalonians 2:13-14
- Acts 26:18; 1 Corinthians 2:10, 12
- Ezekiel 11:19; Ezekiel 36:26-27; John 6:45
- Ephesians 2:5; Philippians 2:13; Deuteronomy 30:6
A. All the elect, and they only, are effectually called:1 although others may be, and often are, outwardly called by the ministry of the Word,2 and have some common operations of the Spirit;3 who, for their wilful neglect and contempt of the grace offered to them, being justly left in their unbelief, do never truly come to Jesus Christ.4
- Acts 13:48
- Matthew 22:14
- Matthew 7:22; Hebrews 6:4-6
- John 12:38-40; Acts 28:25-27; John 6:64-65; Psalm 81:11-12
A. The communion in grace which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is their partaking of the virtue of his mediation, in their justification,1 adoption,2 sanctification, and whatever else, in this life, manifests their union with him.3
- Romans 8:30
- Ephesians 1:5
- 1 Corinthians 1:30
A. Justification is an act of God’s free grace unto sinners,1 in which he pardons all their sins, accepts and accounts their persons righteous in his sight;2 not for any thing wrought in them, or done by them,3 but only for the perfect obedience and full satisfaction of Christ, by God imputed to them,4 and received by faith alone.5
- Romans 3:22, 24-25; Romans 4:5
- 2 Corinthians 5:19, 21; Romans 3:22, 24-25, 27-28
- Titus 3:5, 7; Ephesians 1:7
- Romans 5:17-19; Romans 4:6-8
- Acts 10:43; Galatians 2:16; Philippians 3:
A. Although Christ, by his obedience and death, did make a proper, real, and full satisfaction to God’s justice in the behalf of them that are justified;1 yet in as much as God accepteth the satisfaction from a surety, which he might have demanded of them, and did provide this surety, his own only Son,2 imputing his righteousness to them,3 and requiring nothing of them for their justification but faith,4 which also is his gift,5 their justification is to them of free grace.6
- Romans 5:8-10, 19
- 1 Timothy 2:5-6; Hebrews 10:10; Matthew 20:28; Daniel 9:24, 26; Isaiah 53:4-6, 10-12; Hebrews 7:22; Romans 8:32; 1 Peter 1:18-19.
- 2 Corinthians 5:21.
- Romans 3:24-25.
- Ephesians 2:8.
- Ephesians 1:17.
A. Justifying faith is a saving grace,1 wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit2 and Word of God,3 whereby he, being convinced of his sin and misery, and of the disability in himself and all other creatures to recover him out of his lost condition,4 not only assents to the truth of the promise of the gospel,5 but receives and rests upon Christ and his righteousness, therein held forth, for pardon of sin,6 and for the accepting and accounting of his person righteous in the sight of God for salvation.7
- Hebrews 10:39.
- 2 Corinthians 4:13; Ephesians 1:17-19.
- Romans 10:14-17.
- Acts 2:37; Acts 16:30; John 16:8-9; Romans 6:6; Ephesians 2:1; Acts 4:12.
- Ephesians 1:13.
- John 1:12; Acts 16:31; Acts 10:43.
- Philippians 3:9; Acts 15:11.
A. Faith justifies a sinner in the sight of God, not because of those other graces which do always accompany it, or of good works that are the fruits of it,1 nor as if the grace of faith, or any act thereof, were imputed to him for his justification;2 but only as it is an instrument by which he receiveth and applieth Christ and his righteousness.3
- Galatians 3:11; Romans 3:28.
- Romans 4:5; Romans 10:10.
- John 1:12; Philippians 3:9; Galatians 1:16.
A. Adoption is an act of the free grace of God,1 in and for his only Son Jesus Christ,2 whereby all those that are justified are received into the number of his children,3 have his name put upon them,4 the Spirit of his Son given to them,5 are under his fatherly care and dispensations,5 admitted to all the liberties and privileges of the sons of God, made heirs of all the promises, and fellow-heirs with Christ in glory.7
- 1 John 3:1.
- Ephesians 1:5; Galatians 4:4-5.
- John 1:12.
- 2 Corinthians 6:18; Revelation 3:12.
- Galatians 4:6.
- Psalm 103:13; Proverbs 14:26; Matthew 6:32.
- Hebrews 6:12; Romans 8:17.
A. Sanctification is a work of God’s grace, whereby they whom God hath, before the foundation of the world, chosen to be holy, are in time, through the powerful operation of his Spirit1 applying the death and resurrection of Christ unto them,2 renewed in their whole man after the image of God;3 having the seeds of repentance unto life, and all other saving graces, put into their hearts,4 and those graces so stirred up, increased, and strengthened,5 as that they more and more die unto sin, and rise unto newness of life.6
- Ephesians 1:4; 1 Corinthians 6:11; 2 Thessalonians 2:13.
- Romans 6:4-6.
- Ephesians 4:23-24.
- Acts 11:18; 1 John 3:9.
- Jude 20; Hebrews 6:11-12; Ephesians 3:16-19; Colossians 1:10-11.
- Romans 6:4, 6, 14; Galatians 5:24.
A. Repentance unto life is a saving grace,1 wrought in the heart of a sinner by the Spirit2 and Word of God,3 whereby, out of the sight and sense, not only of the danger,4 but also of the filthiness and odiousness of his sins,5 and upon the apprehension of God’s mercy in Christ to such as are penitent,6 he so grieves for7 and hates his sins,8 as that he turns from them all to God,9 purposing and endeavouring constantly to walk with him in all the ways of new obedience.10
- 2 Timothy 2:25.
- Zechariah 12:10.
- Acts 11:18, 20-21.
- Ezekiel 18:28, 30, 32; Luke 15:17-18; Hosea 2:6-7.
- Ezekiel 36:31; Isaiah 30:22.
- Joel 2:12-13.
- Jeremiah 31:18-19.
- 2 Corinthians 7:11.
- Acts 26:18; Ezekiel 14:6; 1 Kings 8:47-48.
- Psalm 119:6, 59, 128; 2 Kings 23:25.
A. Although sanctification be inseparably joined with justification,1 yet they differ, in that God in justification imputes the righteousness of Christ;2 in sanctification of his Spirit infuseth grace, and enables to the exercise thereof;3 in the former, sin is pardoned;4 in the other, it is subdued:5 the one does equally free all believers from the revenging wrath of God, and that perfectly in this life, that they never fall into condemnation6 the other is neither equal in all,7 nor in this life perfect in any,8 but growing up to perfection.9
- 1 Corinthians 6:11; 1 Corinthians 1:30.
- Romans 4:6, 8.
- Ezekiel 36:27.
- Romans 3:24-25.
- Romans 6:6, 14.
- Romans 8:33-34.
- 1 John 2:12-14; Hebrews 5:12-14.
- 1 John 1:8, 10.
- 2 Corinthians 7:1; Philippians 3:12-14.
A. The imperfection of sanctification in believers ariseth from the remnants of sin abiding in every part of them, and the perpetual lustings of the flesh against the spirit; whereby they are often foiled with temptations, and fall into many sins,1 are hindered in all their spiritual services,2 and their best works are imperfect and defiled in the sight of God.3
- Romans 7:18, 23; Mark 14:66; Galatians 2:11-12.
- Hebrews 12:1.
- Isaiah 64:6; Exodus 28:38.
A. True believers, by reason of the unchangeable love of God,1 and his decree and covenant to give them perseverance,2 their inseparable union with Christ,3 his continual intercession for them,4 and the Spirit and seed of God abiding in them,5 can neither totally nor finally fall away from the state of grace,6 but are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation.7
- Jeremiah 31:3.
- 2 Timothy 2:19; Hebrews 13:20-21; 2 Samuel 23:5.
- 1 Corinthians 1:8-9.
- Hebrews 7:25; Luke 22:32.
- 1 John 3:9; 1 John 2:27.
- Jeremiah 32:40; John 10:28.
- 1 Peter 1:5.
A. Such as truly believe in Christ, and endeavour to walk in all good conscience before him,1 may, without extraordinary revelation, by faith grounded upon the truth of God’s promises, and by the Spirit enabling them to discern in themselves those graces to which the promises of life are made,2 and bearing witness with their spirits that they are the children of God,3 be infallibly assured that they are in the estate of grace, and shall persevere therein unto salvation.4
- 1 John 2:3.
- 1 Corinthians 2:12; 1 John 3:14, 18-19, 21, 24; 1 John 4:13, 16; Hebrews 6:11-12.
- Romans 8:16.
- 1 John 5:13.
A. Assurance of grace and salvation not being of the essence of faith,1 true believers may wait long before they obtain it;2 and, after the enjoyment thereof, may have it weakened and intermitted, through manifold distempers, sins, temptations, and desertions;3 yet they are never left without such a presence and support of the Spirit of God as keeps them from sinking into utter despair.4
- Ephesians 1:13.
- Isaiah 50:10; Psalm 88:1-3, 6-7, 9-10, 13-15.
- Psalm 77:1-12; Song of Solomon 5:2-3, 6; Psalm 51:8, 12; Psalm 31:22; Psalm 22:1.
- 1 John 3:9; Psalm 73:15, 23; Isaiah 54:7-10.
A. The communion in glory which the members of the invisible church have with Christ, is in this life,1 immediately after death,2 and at last perfected at the resurrection and day of judgment.3
- 2 Corinthians 3:18.
- Luke 23:43.
- 1 Thessalonians 4:17.
A. The members of the invisible church have communicated to them in this life the firstfruits of glory with Christ, as they are members of him their head, and so in him are interested in that glory which he is fully possessed of;1 and, as an earnest thereof, enjoy the sense of God’s love,2 peace of conscience, joy in the Holy Ghost, and hope of glory;3 as, on the contrary, sense of God’s revenging wrath, horror of conscience, and a fearful expectation of judgment, are to the wicked the beginning of their torments which they shall endure after death.4
- Ephesians 2:5-6.
- Romans 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:22.
- Romans 5:1-2; Romans 14:17.
- Genesis 4:13; Matthew 27:4; Hebrews 10:27; Romans 2:9; Mark 9:48.
A. Death being threatened as the wages of sin,1 it is appointed unto all men once to die;2 for that all have sinned.3
- Romans 6:23.
- Hebrews 9:27.
- Romans 5:12.
A. The righteous shall be delivered from death itself at the last day, and even in death are delivered from the sting and curse of it;1 so that, although they die, yet it is out of God’s love,2 to free them perfectly from sin and misery,3 and to make them capable of further communion with Christ in glory, which they then enter upon.4
- 1 Corinthians 15:26, 55-57; Hebrews 2:15.
- Isaiah 57:1-2; 2 Kings 22:20.
- Revelation 14:13; Ephesians 5:27.
- Luke 23:43; Philippians 1:23.
A. The communion in glory with Christ, which the members of the invisible church enjoy immediately after death is, in that their souls are then made perfect in holiness,1 and received into the highest heavens,2 where they behold the face of God in light and glory,3 waiting for the full redemption of their bodies,4 which even in death continue united to Christ,5 and rest in their graves as in their beds,6 till at the last day they be again united to their souls.7 Whereas the souls of the wicked are at their death cast into hell, where they remain in torments and utter darkness, and their bodies kept in their graves, as in their prisons, till the resurrection and judgment of the great day.8
- Hebrews 12:23.
- 2 Corinthians 5:1, 6, 8; Philippians 1:23; Acts 3:21; Ephesians 4:10.
- 1 John 3:2; 1 Corinthians 13:12.
- Romans 8:23; Psalm 16:9.
- 1 Thessalonians 4:14; Isaiah 57:2.
- Job 19:26-27.
- Luke 16:23-24; Jude 6-7.
A. We are to believe that at the last day there shall be a general resurrection of the dead, both of the just and unjust:1 when they that are then found alive shall in a moment be changed; and the selfsame bodies of the dead which were laid in the grave, being then again united to their souls forever, shall be raised up by the power of Christ.2 The bodies of the just, by the Spirit of Christ, and by virtue of his resurrection as their head, shall be raised in power, spiritual, incorruptible, and made like to his glorious body;3 and the bodies of the wicked shall be raised up in dishonour by him, as an offended judge.4
- Acts 24:15.
- 1 Corinthians 15:51-53; 1 Thessalonians 4:15-17; John 5:28-29.
- 1 Corinthians 15:21-23, 42-44; Philippians 3:21.
- John 5:27-29; Matthew 25:33.
A. Immediately after the resurrection shall follow the general and final judgment of angels and men;1 the day and hour whereof no man knoweth, that all may watch and pray, and be ever ready for the coming of the Lord.2
- 2 Peter 2:4, 6-7, 14-15; Matthew 25:46.
- Matthew 24:36, 42, 44.
A. At the day of judgment, the wicked shall be set on Christ’s left hand,1 and, upon clear evidence, and full conviction of their own consciences,2 shall have the fearful but just sentence of condemnation pronounced against them;3 and thereupon shall be cast out from the favourable presence of God, and the glorious fellowship with Christ, his saints, and all his holy angels, into hell, to be punished with unspeakable torments, both of body and soul, with the devil and his angels forever.4
- Matthew 25:33.
- Romans 2:15-16.
- Matthew 25:41-43.
- Luke 16:26; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9.
A. At the day of judgment, the righteous, being caught up to Christ in the clouds,1 shall be set on his right hand, and there openly acknowledged and acquitted,2 shall join with him in the judging of reprobate angels and men,3 and shall be received into heaven,4 where they shall be fully and forever freed from all sin and misery;5 filled with inconceivable joys,6 made perfectly holy and happy both in body and soul, in the company of innumerable saints and holy angels,7 but especially in the immediate vision and fruition of God the Father, of our Lord Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, to all eternity.8 And this is the perfect and full communion, which the members of the invisible church shall enjoy with Christ in glory, at the resurrection and day of judgment.
- 1 Thessalonians 4:17.
- Matthew 25:33; Matthew 10:32.
- 1 Corinthians 6:2-3.
- Matthew 25:34, 46.
- Ephesians 5:27; Revelation 14:13.
- Psalm 16:11.
- Hebrews 12:22-23.
- 1 John 3:2; 1 Corinthians 13:12; 1 Thessalonians 4:17-18.
A. The duty which God requireth of man, is obedience to his revealed will.1
- Romans 12:1-2; Micah 6:8; 1 Samuel 15:22.
A. The rule of obedience revealed to Adam in the estate of innocence, and to all mankind in him, besides a special command not to eat of the fruit of the tree knowledge of good and evil, was the moral law.1
- Genesis 1:26-27; Romans 2:14-15; Romans 10:5; Genesis 2:17.
A. The moral law is the declaration of the will of God to mankind, directing and binding every one to personal, perfect, and perpetual conformity and obedience thereunto, in the frame and disposition of the whole man, soul and body,1 and in performance of all those duties of holiness and righteousness which he oweth to God and man:2 promising life upon the fulfilling, and threatening death upon the breach of it.3
- Deuteronomy 5:1-3, 31, 33; Luke 10:26-27; 1 Thessalonians 5:23.
- Luke 1:75; Acts 24:16.
- Romans 10:5; Galatians 3:10, 12.
A. Although no man, since the fall, can attain to righteousness and life by the moral law:1 yet there is great use thereof, as well common to all men, as peculiar either to the unregenerate, or the regenerate.2
- Romans 8:3; Galatians 2:16.
- 1 Timothy 1:8.
A. The moral law is of use to all men, to inform them of the holy nature and the will of God,1 and of their duty, binding them to walk accordingly;2 to convince them of their disability to keep it, and of the sinful pollution of their nature, hearts, and lives:3 to humble them in the sense of their sin and misery,4 and thereby help them to a clearer sight of the need they have of Christ,5 and of the perfection of his obedience.6
- Leviticus 11:44-45; Leviticus 20:7-8; Romans 8:12.
- Micah 6:8; James 2:10-11.
- Psalm 19:11-12; Romans 3:20; Romans 7:7.
- Romans 3:9, 23; Galatians 3:21-22.
- Romans 10:4.
A. The moral law is of use to unregenerate men, to awaken their consciences to flee from wrath to come,1 and to drive them to Christ;2 or, upon their continuance in the estate and way of sin, to leave them inexcusable,3 and under the curse thereof.4
- 1 Timothy 1:9-10.
- Galatians 3:24.
- Romans 1:20; Romans 2:15.
- Galatians 3:10.
A. Although they that are regenerate, and believe in Christ, be delivered from the moral law as a covenant of works,1 so as thereby they are neither justified2 nor condemned;3 yet, besides the general uses thereof common to them with all men, it is of special use, to show them how much they are bound to Christ for his fulfilling it, and enduring the curse thereof in their stead, and for their good;4 and thereby to provoke them to more thankfulness,5 and to express the same in their greater care to conform themselves thereunto as the rule of their obedience.6
- Romans 6:14; Romans 7:4, 6; Galatians 4:4-5.
- Romans 3:20.
- Galatians 5:23; Romans 8:1.
- Romans 7:24-25; Galatians 3:13-14; Romans 8:3-4.
- Luke 1:68-69, 74-75; Colossians 1:12-14.
- Romans 7:22; Romans 12:2; Titus 2:11-14.
A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments, which were delivered by the voice of God upon Mount Sinai, and written by him in two tables of stone;1 and are recorded in the twentieth chapter of Exodus. The four first commandments containing our duty to God, and the other six our duty to man.2
- Deuteronomy 10:4; Exodus 34:1-4.
- Matthew 22:37-40.
A. For the right understanding of the ten commandments, these rules are to be observed:
1. That the law is perfect, and binds everyone to full conformity in the whole man unto the righteousness thereof, and unto entire obedience forever; so as to require the utmost perfection of every duty, and to forbid the least degree of every sin.1
2. That it is spiritual, and so reaches the understanding, will, affections, and all other powers of the soul; as well as words, works, and gestures.2
3. That one and the same thing, in various respects, is required or forbidden in several commandments.3
4. That as, where a duty is commanded, the contrary sin is forbidden;4 and, where a sin is forbidden, the contrary duty is commanded:5 so, where a promise is annexed, the contrary threatening is included;6 and, where a threatening is annexed, the contrary promise is included.7
5. That what God forbids, is at no time to be done;8 what he commands, is always our duty;9 and yet every particular duty is not to be done at all times.10
6. That under one sin or duty, all of the same kind are forbidden or commanded; together with all the causes, means, occasions, and appearances thereof, and provocations thereunto.11
7. That what is forbidden or commanded to ourselves, we are bound, according to our places to endeavour that it may be avoided or performed by others, according to the duty of their places.12
8. That in what is commanded to others, we are bound, according to our places and callings, to be helpful to them;13 and to take heed of partaking with others in what is forbidden them.14
- Psalm 19:7; James 2:10; Matthew 5:21-22.
- Romans 7:14; Deuteronomy 6:5; Matthew 22:37-39; Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28, 33-34, 37-39, 43-44.
- Colossians 3:5; Amos 8:5; Proverbs 1:19; 1 Timothy 6:10.
- Isaiah 58:13; Deuteronomy 6:13; Matthew 4:9-10; Matthew 15:4-6.
- Matthew 5:21-25; Ephesians 4:28.
- Exodus 20:12; Proverbs 30:17.
- Jeremiah 18:7-8; Exodus 20:7; Psalm 15:1, 4-5; Psalm 24:4-5.
- Job 13:7-8; Romans 3:8; Job 36:21; Hebrews 11:25.
- Deuteronomy 4:8-9.
- Matthew 12:7.
- Matthew 5:21-22, 27-28; Matthew 15:4-6; Hebrews 10:24-25; Jude 23; Galatians 5:26; Colossians 3:21.
- Exodus 20:10; Leviticus 19:17; Genesis 18:19; Joshua 14:15; Deuteronomy 6:6-7.
- 2 Corinthians 1:24.
- 1 Timothy 5:22; Ephesians 5:11.
A. We are to consider in the ten commandments, the preface, the substance of the commandments themselves, and several reasons annexed to some of them, the more to enforce them.
A. The preface to the ten commandments is contained in these words, "I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage."1 Wherein God manifesteth his sovereignty, as being JEHOVAH, the eternal, immutable, and almighty God;2 having his being in and of himself,3 and giving being to all his words4 and works:5 and that he is a God in covenant, as with Israel of old, so with all his people;6 who, as he brought them out of their bondage in Egypt, so he delivereth us from our spiritual thraldom;7 and that therefore we are bound to take him for our God alone, and to keep all his commandments.8
- Exodus 20:2.
- Isaiah 44:6.
- Exodus 3:14.
- Exodus 6:3.
- Acts 17:24, 28.
- Genesis 17:7.
- Luke 1:74-75.
- 1 Peter 1:15, 17-18; Leviticus 18:30; Leviticus 19:37.
A. The sum of the four commandments containing our duty to God is, to love the Lord our God with all our heart, and with all our soul, and with all our strength, and with all our mind.1
- Luke 10:27.
A. The first commandment is, "Thou shall have no other gods before me."1
- Exodus 20:3.
A. The duties required in the first commandment are, the knowing and acknowledging of God to be the only true God, and our God;1 and to worship and glorify him accordingly,2 by thinking,3 meditating,4 remembering,5 highly esteeming,6 honouring,7 adoring,8 choosing,9 loving,10 desiring,11 fearing of him;12 believing him;13 trusting,14 hoping,15 delighting,16 rejoicing in him;17 being zealous for him;18 calling upon him, giving all praise and thanks,19 and yielding all obedience and submission to him with the whole man;20 being careful in all things to please him,21 and sorrowful when in any thing he is offended;22 and walking humbly with him.23
- 1 Chronicles 28:9; Deuteronomy 26:7; Isaiah 43:10; Jeremiah 14:22.
- Psalm 95:6-7; Matthew 4:10; Psalm 29:2.
- Malachi 3:16.
- Psalm 63:6.
- Ecclesiastes 12:1.
- Psalm 71:19.
- Malachi 1:6.
- Isaiah 45:23.
- Joshua 24:15, 22.
- Deuteronomy 6:5.
- Psalm 73:25.
- Isaiah 8:13.
- Exodus 14:31.
- Isaiah 26:4.
- Psalm 130:7.
- Psalm 37:4.
- Psalm 32:11.
- Romans 12:11; Numbers 25:11.
- Philippians 4:6.
- Jeremiah 7:23; James 4:7.
- 1 John 3:22.
- Jeremiah 31:18; Psalm 119:136.
- Micah 6:8.
A. The sins forbidden in the first commandment are, atheism, in denying or not having a God;1 idolatry, in having or worshipping more gods than one, or any with or instead of the true God;2 the not having and avouching him for God, and our God;3 the omission or neglect of anything due to him, required in this commandment;4 ignorance,5 forgetfulness,6 misapprehensions,7 false opinions,8 unworthy and wicked thoughts of him;9 bold and curious searching into his secrets;10 all profaneness,11 hatred of God;12 self-love,13 self-seeking,14 and all other inordinate and immoderate setting of our mind, will, or affections upon other things, and taking them off from him in whole or in part;15 vain credulity,16 unbelief,17 heresy,18 misbelief,19 distrust,20 despair,21 incorrigibleness,22 and insensibleness under judgments,23 hardness of heart,24 pride,25 presumption,26 carnal security,27 tempting of God;28 using unlawful means,29 and trusting in lawful means;30 carnal delights and joys;31 corrupt, blind, and indiscreet zeal;32 lukewarmness,33 and deadness in the things of God;34 estranging ourselves, and apostatizing from God;35 praying, or giving any religious worship, to saints, angels, or any other creatures;36 all compacts and consulting with the devil,37 and hearkening to his suggestions;38 making men the lords of our faith and conscience;39 slighting and despising God and his commands;40 resisting and grieving of his Spirit,41 discontent and impatience at his dispensations, charging him foolishly for the evils he inflicts on us;42 and ascribing the praise of any good we either are, have or can do, to fortune,43 idols,44 ourselves,45 or any other creature.46
- Psalm 14:1; Ephesians 2:12.
- Jeremiah 2:27-28; 1 Thessalonians 1:9.
- Psalm 81:11.
- Isaiah 43:2, 23-24.
- Jeremiah 4:22; Hosea 4:1, 6.
- Jeremiah 2:32.
- Acts 17:23, 29.
- Isaiah 40:18.
- Psalm 50:21.
- Deuteronomy 29:29.
- Titus 1:16; Hebrews 12:16
- Romans 1:30
- 2 Timothy 3:2
- Philippians 2:21
- 1 John 2:15-16; 1 Samuel 2:29; Colossians 2:2, 5
- 1 John 4:1
- Hebrews 3:12
- Galatians 5:20l Titus 3:10
- Acts 26:9
- Psalm 78:22
- Genesis 4:13
- Jeremiah 5:3
- Isaiah 42:25
- Romans 2:5
- Jeremiah 13:15
- Psalm 10:13
- Zephaniah 1:12
- Matthew 4:7
- Romans 3:8
- Jeremiah 17:5
- 2 Timothy 3:4
- Galatians 4:17; John 16:2; Romans 10:2; Luke 9:54-55
- Revelation 3:16
- Revelation 2:1
- Ezekiel 14:5; Isaiah 1:4-5
- Romans 10:13-14; Hosea 4:12; Acts 10:25-26; Revelation 19:10; Matthew 4:10; Colossians 2:18; Romans 1:25
- Leviticus 20:6; 1 Samuel 28:7, 11; 1 Chronicles 10:13-14
- Acts 5:3
- 2 Corinthians 1:24; Matthew 23:9
- Deuteronomy 32:15; 2 Samuel 12:9; Proverbs 13:13
- Acts 7:51; Ephesians 4:30
- Psalm 73:2-3, 13-15, 22; Job 1:22
- 1 Samuel 6:7-9
- Daniel 5:23
- Deuteronomy 8:17; Daniel 4:30
- Habakkuk 1:16
A. These words before me or before my face, in the first commandment, teach us, that God, who seeth all things, taketh special notice of, and is much displeased with, the sin of having any other God: that so it may be an argument to dissuade from it, and to aggravate it as a most impudent provocation:1 as also to persuade us to do as in his sight, whatever we do in his service.2
- Ezekiel 8:5-6; Psalm 44:20-21
- 1 Chronicles 28:9
A. The second commandment is, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments.1
- Exodus 20:4-6
A. The duties required in the second commandment are, the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath instituted in his Word;1 particularly prayer and thanksgiving in the name of Christ;2 the reading, preaching, and hearing of the Word;3 the administration and receiving of the sacraments;4 church government and discipline;5 the ministry and maintainance thereof;6 religious fasting;7 swearing by the name of God;8 and vowing unto him;9 as also the disapproving, detesting, opposing all false worship;10 and, according to each one’s place and calling, removing it, and all monuments of idolatry.11
- Deuteronomy 32:46-47; Matthew 28:20; Acts 2:42; 1 Timothy 6:13-14
- Philippians 4:6; Ephesians 5:20
- Deuteronomy 17:18-19; Acts 15:21; 2 Timothy 4:2; James 1:21-22
- Matthew 28:19; 1 Corinthians 11:23-30
- Matthew 18:15-17; 1 Corinthians 5; 1 Corinthians 12:28
- Ephesians 4:11-12; 1 Timothy 5:17-18; 1 Corinthians 9:7-15
- Joel 2:12, 18; 1 Corinthians 7:5
- Deuteronomy 6:13
- Psalm 76:11
- Acts 17:16-17; Psalm 16:4
- Deuteronomy 7:5; Isaiah 30:22
A. The sins forbidden in the second commandment are, all devising,1 counselling,2 commanding,3 using,4 and anywise approving, any religious worship not instituted by God himself;5 tolerating a false religion; the making any representation of God, of all or of any of the three persons, either inwardly in our mind, or outwardly in any kind of image or likeness of any creature whatsoever;6 all worshipping of it,7 or God in it or by it;8 the making of any representation of feigned deities,9 and all worship of them, or service belonging to them,10 all superstitious devices,11 corrupting the worship of God,12 adding to it, or taking from it,13 whether invented and taken up of ourselves,14 or received by tradition from others,15 though under the title of antiquity,16 custom,17 devotion,18 good intent, or any other pretence whatsoever;19 simony;20 sacrilege;21 all neglect,22 contempt,23 hindering,24 and opposing the worship and ordinances which God hath appointed.25
- Numbers 15:39
- Deuteronomy 13:6-8
- Hosea 5:11; Micah 6:16
- 1 Kings 11:33; 1 Kings 12:33
- Deuteronomy 12:30-32
- Deuteronomy 4:15-19; Acts 17:29; Romans 1:21-23, 25
- Daniel 3:18; Galatians 4:8
- Exodus 32:5
- Exodus 32:8
- 1 Kings 18:26, 28; Isaiah 65:11
- Acts 17:22; Colossians 2:21-23
- Malachi 1:7-8, 14
- Deuteronomy 4:2
- Psalm 106:39
- Matthew 15:9
- 1 Peter 1:18
- Jeremiah 44:17
- Isaiah 65:3-5; Galatians 1:13-14
- 1 Samuel 13:11-12; 1 Samuel 15:21
- Acts 8:18
- Romans 2:22; Malachi 3:8
- Exodus 4:24-26
- Matthew 22:5; Malachi 1:7, 13
- Matthew 23:13
- Acts 13:44-45; 1 Thessalonians 2:15-16
A. The reasons annexed to the second commandment, the more to enforce it, contained in these words, For I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments;1 are, besides God’s sovereignty over us, and propriety in us,2 his fervent zeal for his own worship,3 and his revengeful indignation against all false worship, as being a spiritual whoredom;4 accounting the breakers of this commandment such as hate him, and threatening to punish them unto divers generations;5 and esteeming the observers of it such as love him and keep his commandments, and promising mercy to them unto many generations.6
- Exodus 20:5-6
- Psalm 45:11; Revelation 15:3-4
- Exodus 34:13-14
- 1 Corinthians 10:20-22; Deuteronomy 32:16-20
- Hosea 2:2-4
- Deuteronomy 5:29
A. The third commandment is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain: for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain.1
- Exodus 20:7
A. The third commandment requires, That the name of God, his titles, attributes,1 ordinances,2 the Word,3 sacraments,4 prayer,5 oaths,6 vows,7 lots,8 his works,9 and whatsoever else there is whereby he makes himself known, be holily and reverently used in thought,10 meditation,11 word,12 and writing;13 by an holy profession,14 and answerable conversation,15 to the glory of God,16 and the good of ourselves,17 and others.18
- Matthew 11:9; Deuteronomy 28:58; Psalm 29:2; Psalm 68:4; Revelation 15:3-4
- Malachi 1:14; Ecclesiastes 5:1
- Psalm 138:2
- 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, 28-29
- 1 Timothy 2:8
- Jeremiah 4:2
- Ecclesiastes 5:2, 4-6
- Acts 1:24, 26
- Job 36:24
- Malachi 3:16
- Psalm 8:1, 3-4, 9
- Colossians 3:17; Psalm 105:2, 5
- Psalm 102:18
- 1 Peter 3:15; Micah 4:5
- Philippians 1:27
- 1 Corinthians 10:31
- Jeremiah 32:39
- 1 Peter 2:12
A. The sins forbidden in the third commandment are, the not using of God’s name as is required;1 and the abuse of it in an ignorant,2 vain,3 irreverent, profane,4 superstitious5 or wicked mentioning or otherwise using his titles, attributes,6 ordinances,7 or works,8 by blasphemy,9 perjury;10 all sinful cursings,11 oaths,12 vows,13 and lots;14 violating of our oaths and vows, if lawful;15 and fulfilling them, if of things unlawful;16 murmuring and quarrelling at,17 curious prying into,18 and misapplying of God’s decrees19 and providences;20 misinterpreting,21 misapplying,22 or any way perverting the Word, or any part of it;23 to profane jests,24 curious or unprofitable questions, vain janglings, or the maintaining of false doctrines;25 abusing it, the creatures, or anything contained under the name of God, to charms,26 or sinful lusts and practices;27 the maligning,28 scorning,29 reviling,30 or any wise opposing of God’s truth, grace, and ways;31 making profession of religion in hypocrisy, or for sinister ends;32 being ashamed of it,33 or a shame to it, by unconformable,34 unwise,35 unfruitful,36 and offensive walking,37 or backsliding from it.38
- Malachi 2:2
- Acts 17:23
- Proverbs 30:9
- Malachi 1:6-7, 12; Malachi 3:14
- 1 Samuel 4:3-5; Jeremiah 7:4, 9-10, 14, 31; Colossians 2:20-22
- 2 Kings 18:30, 35; Exodus 5:2; Psalm 139:20
- Psalm 50:16-17
- Isaiah 5:12
- 2 Kings 19:22; Leviticus 24:11
- Zechariah 5:4; Zechariah 8:17
- 1 Samuel 17:43; 2 Samuel 16:5
- Jeremiah 5:7; Jeremiah 23:10
- Deuteronomy 23:18; Acts 23:12, 14
- Esther 3:7; Esther 9:24; Psalm 22:18
- Psalm 24:4; Ezekiel 17:16, 18-19
- Mark 6:26; 1 Samuel 25:22, 32-34
- Romans 9:14, 19-20
- Deuteronomy 29:29
- Romans 3:5, 7; Romans 6:1
- Ecclesiastes 8:11; Ecclesiastes 9:3
- Matthew 5:21-22
- Ezekiel 13:22
- 2 Peter 3:16; Matthew 22:24-31; Matthew 25:28-30
- Isaiah 22:13; Jeremiah 23:34, 36, 38
- 1 Timothy 1:4, 6-7; 1 Timothy 6:4-5, 20; 2 Timothy 2:14; Titus 3:9
- Deuteronomy 18:10-14; Acts 19:13
- 2 Timothy 4:3-4; Romans 13:13-14; 1 Kings 21:9-10; Jude 4
- Acts 13:45; 1 John 3:12
- Psalm 1:1; 2 Peter 3:3
- 1 Peter 4:4
- Acts 13:45-46, 50; Acts 4:18; Acts 19:9; 1 Thessalonians 2:16; Hebrews 10:29
- 2 Timothy 3:5; Matthew 6:1-2, 5, 16
- Mark 8:38
- Psalm 73:14-15
- 1 Corinthians 6:5-6; Ephesians 5:15-17
- Isaiah 5:4; 2 Peter 1:8-9
- Romans 2:23-24
- Galatians 3:1, 3; Hebrews 6:6
A. The reasons annexed to the third commandment, in these words, The Lord thy God, and, For the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain,1 are, because he is the Lord and our God, therefore his name is not to be profaned, or any way abused by us;2 especially because he will be so far from acquitting and sparing the transgressors of this commandment, as that he will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment;3 albeit many such escape the censures and punishments of men.4
- Exodus 20:7
- Leviticus 19:12
- Ezekiel 36:21-23; Deuteronomy 28:58-59; Zechariah 5:2-4
- 1 Samuel 2:12, 17, 22, 24; 1 Samuel 3:13
A. The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy man-servant, nor thy maid-servant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested in the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath-day and hallowed it.1
- Exodus 20:8-11
A. The fourth commandment requireth of all men the sanctifying or keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed in his Word, expressly one whole day in seven; which was the seventh from the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, and the first day of the week ever since, and so to continue to the end of the world; which is the Christian sabbath,1 and in the New Testament called The Lord’s day.2
- Deuteronomy 5:12-14; Genesis 2:2-3; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Matthew 5:17-18; Isaiah 56:2, 4, 6-7
- Revelation 1:10
A. The sabbath or Lord’s day is to be sanctified by an holy resting all the day,1 not only from such works as are at all times sinful, but even from such worldly employments and recreations as are on other days lawful;2 and making it our delight to spend the whole time (except so much of it as is to be taken up in works of necessity and mercy)3 in the public and private exercises of God’s worship:4 and, to that end, we are to prepare our hearts, and with such foresight, diligence, and moderation, to dispose and seasonably dispatch our worldly business, that we may be the more free and fit for the duties of that day.5
- Exodus 20:8, 10
- Exodus 16:25-28; Nehemiah 13:15-22; Jeremiah 17:21-22
- Matthew 12:1-13
- Isaiah 58:13; Luke 4:16; Acts 20:7; 1 Corinthians 16:1-2; Psalm 92; Isaiah 66:23; Leviticus 23:3
- Exodus 20:8; Luke 23:54, 56; Exodus 16:22, 25-26, 29; Nehemiah 13:19
A. The charge of keeping the sabbath is more specially directed to governors of families, and other superiors, because they are bound not only to keep it themselves, but to see that it be observed by all those that are under their charge; and because they are prone ofttimes to hinder them by employments of their own.1
- Exodus 20:10; Joshua 24:15; Nehemiah 13:15, 17; Jeremiah 17:20-22; Exodus 23:12
A. The sins forbidden in the fourth commandment are, all omissions of the duties required,1 all careless, negligent, and unprofitable performing of them, and being weary of them;2 all profaning the day by idleness, and doing that which is in itself sinful;3 and by all needless works, words, and thoughts, about our worldly employments and recreations.4
- Ezekiel 22:26
- Acts 20:7, 9; Ezekiel 33:30-32; Amos 8:5; Malachi 1:13
- Ezekiel 23:38
- Jeremiah 17:24, 27; Isaiah 58:13
A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment, the more to enforce it, are taken from the equity of it, God allowing us six days of seven for our own affairs, and reserving but one for himself in these words, Six days shalt thou labour, and do all thy work:1 from God’s challenging a special propriety in that day, The seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God:2 from the example of God, who in six days made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: and from that blessing which God put upon that day, not only in sanctifying it to be a day for his service, but in ordaining it to be a means of blessing to us in our sanctifying it; Wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.3
- Exodus 20:9
- Exodus 20:10
- Exodus 20:11
A. The word Remember is set in the beginning of the fourth commandment,1 partly, because of the great benefit of remembering it, we being thereby helped in our preparation to keep it,2 and, in keeping it, better to keep all the rest of the commandments,3 and to continue a thankful remembrance of the two great benefits of creation and redemption, which contain a short abridgment of religion;4 and partly, because we are very ready to forget it,5 for that there is less light of nature for it,6 and yet it restraineth our natural liberty in things at other times lawful;7 that it cometh but once in seven days, and many worldly businesses come between, and too often take off our minds from thinking of it, either to prepare for it, or to sanctify it;8 and that Satan with his instruments labours much to blot out the glory, and even the memory of it, to bring in all irreligion and impiety.9
- Exodus 20:8
- Exodus 16:23; Luke 23:54, 56; Nehemiah 13:19
- Psalm 92; Ezekiel 20:12, 19-20
- Genesis 2:2-3; Psalm 118:22, 24; Acts 4:10-11; Revelation 1:10
- Ezekiel 22:26
- Nehemiah 9:14
- Exodus 34:21
- Deuteronomy 5:14-15; Amos 8:5
- Lamentations 1:7; Jeremiah 17:21-23; Nehemiah 13:15-22
A. The sum of the six commandments which contain our duty to man, is, to love our neighbour as ourselves,1 and to do to others what we would have them to do to us.2
- Matthew 22:39
- Matthew 7:12
A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.1
- Exodus 20:12
A. By father and mother, in the fifth commandment, are meant, not only natural parents,1 but all superiors in age2 and gifts;3 and especially such as, by God’s ordinance, are over us in place of authority, whether in family,4 church,5 or commonwealth.6
- Proverbs 23:22, 25; Ephesians 6:1-2
- 1 Timothy 5:1-2
- Genesis 4:20-22; Genesis 45:8
- 2 Kings 5:13
- 2 Kings 2:12; 2 Kings 13:14; Galatians 4:19
- Isaiah 49:23
A. Superiors are styled father and mother, both to teach them in all duties toward their inferiors, like natural parents, to express love and tenderness to them, according to their several relations;1 and to work inferiors to a greater willingness and cheerfulness in performing their duties to their superiors, as to their parents.2
- Ephesians 6:4; 2 Corinthians 12:14; 1 Thessalonians 2:7-8, 11; Numbers 11:11-12
- 1 Corinthians 4:14-16; 2 Kings 5:13
A. The general scope of the fifth commandment is, the performance of those duties which we mutually owe in our several relations, as inferiors, superiors, or equals.1
- Ephesians 5:21; 1 Peter 2:17; Romans 12:10
A. The honour which inferiors owe to their superiors is, all due reverence in heart,1 word,2 and behavior;3 prayer and thanksgiving for them;4 imitation of their virtues and graces;5 willing obedience to their lawful commands and counsels;6 due submission to their corrections;7 fidelity to,8 defence,9 and maintenance of their persons and authority, according to their several ranks, and the nature of their places;10 bearing with their infirmities, and covering them in love,11 that so they may be an honour to them and to their government.12
- Malachi 1:6; Leviticus 19:3
- Proverbs 31:28
- Leviticus 19:32; 1 Kings 2:19
- 1 Timothy 2:1-2
- Hebrews 13:7; Philippians 3:17
- Ephesians 6:1-2, 6-7; 1 Peter 2:13-14; Romans 13:1-5; Hebrews 13:17; Proverbs 4:3-4; Proverbs 23:22; Exodus 18:19, 24
- Hebrews 12:9; 1 Peter 2:18-20
- Titus 2:9-10
- 1 Samuel 26:15-16; 2 Samuel 18:3; Esther 6:2
- Matthew 22:21; Romans 13:6-7; 1 Timothy 5:17-18; Galatians 6:6; Genesis 45:11; Genesis 47:12
- 1 Peter 2:18; Proverbs 23:22; Genesis 9:23
- Psalm 127:3-5; Proverbs 31:23
A. The sins of inferiors against their superiors are, all neglect of the duties required toward them;1 envying at,2 contempt of, and rebellion4 against, their persons5 and places,6 in their lawful counsels,7 commands, and corrections;8 cursing, mocking9 and all such refractory and scandalous carriage, as proves a shame and dishonour to them and their government.10
- Matthew 15:4-6
- Numbers 11:28-29
- 1 Samuel 8:7; Isaiah 3:5
- 2 Samuel 15:1-12
- Exodus 21:15
- 1 Samuel 10:27
- 1 Samuel 2:25
- Deuteronomy 21:18-21
- Proverbs 30:11, 17
- Proverbs 19:26
A. It is required of superiors, according to that power they receive from God, and that relation wherein they stand, to love,1 pray for,2 and bless their inferiors;3 to instruct,4 counsel, and admonish them;5 countenancing,6 commending,7 and rewarding such as do well;8 and discountenancing,9 reproving, and chastising such as do ill;10 protecting,11 and providing for them all things necessary for soul12 and body:13 and by grave, wise, holy, and exemplary carriage, to procure glory to God,14 honour to themselves,15 and so to preserve that authority which God hath put upon them.16
- Colossians 3:19; Titus 2:4
- 1 Samuel 12:23; Job 1:5
- 1 Kings 8:55-56; Hebrews 7:7; Genesis 49:28
- Deuteronomy 6:6-7
- Ephesians 6:4
- 1 Peter 3:7
- 1 Peter 2:14; Romans 13:3
- Esther 6:3
- Romans 13:3-4
- Proverbs 29:15; 1 Peter 2:14
- Job 29:13-16; Isaiah 1:10, 17
- Ephesians 6:4
- 1 Timothy 5:8
- 1 Timothy 4:12; Titus 2:3-5
- 1 Kings 3:28
- Titus 2:15
A. The sins of superiors are, besides the neglect of the duties required of them,1 and inordinate seeking of themselves,2 their own glory,3 ease, profit, or pleasure;4 commanding things unlawful,5 or not in the power of inferiors to perform;6 counseling,7 encouraging,8 or favouring them in that which is evil;9 dissuading, discouraging, or discountenancing them in that which is good;10 correcting them unduly;11 careless exposing, or leaving them to wrong, temptation, and danger;12 provoking them to wrath;13 or any way dishonouring themselves, or lessening their authority, by an unjust, indiscreet, rigorous, or remiss behaviour.14
- Ezekiel 34:2-4
- Philippians 2:21
- John 5:44; John 7:18
- Isaiah 56:10-11; Deuteronomy 17:17
- Daniel 3:4-6; Acts 4:17-18
- Exodus 5:10-18; Matthew 23:2, 4
- Matthew 14:8; Mark 6:24
- 2 Samuel 13:28
- 1 Samuel 3:13
- John 7:46-49; Exodus 5:17
- 1 Peter 2:18-20; Hebrews 12:10; Deuteronomy 25:3
- Genesis 38:11, 26; Acts 18:17
- Ephesians 6:4
- Genesis 9:21; 1 Kings 12:13-16; 1 Kings 1:6; 1 Samuel 2:29-31
A. The duties of equals are, to regard the dignity and worth of each other,1 in giving honour to go one before another;2 and to rejoice in each others’ gifts and advancement, as their own.3
- 1 Peter 2:17
- Romans 12:10
- Romans 12:15-16; Philippians 2:3-4
A. The sins of equals are, besides the neglect of the duties required,1 the undervaluing of the worth,2 envying the gifts,3 grieving at the advancement of prosperity one of another;4 and usurping pre-eminence one over another.5
- Romans 13:8
- 2 Timothy 3:3
- Acts 7:9; Galatians 5:26
- Numbers 12:2; Esther 6:12-13
- 3 John 9; Luke 22:24
A. The reason annexed to the fifth commandment, in these words, That thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee,1 is an express promise of long life and prosperity, as far as it shall serve for God’s glory and their own good, to all such as keep this commandment.2
- Exodus 20:12
- Deuteronomy 5:16; 1 Kings 8:25; Ephesians 6:2-3
A. The sixth commandment is, Thou shalt not kill.1
- Exodus 20:13
A. The duties required in the sixth commandment are all careful studies, and lawful endeavors, to preserve the life of ourselves1 and others2 by resisting all thoughts and purposes,3 subduing all passions,4 and avoiding all occasions,5 temptations,6 and practices, which tend to the unjust taking away the life of any;7 by just defence thereof against violence,8 patient bearing of the hand of God,9 quietness of mind,10 cheerfulness of spirit;11 a sober use of meat,12 drink,13 physic,14 sleep,15 labour,16 and recreations;17 by charitable thoughts,18 love,19 compassion,20 meekness, gentleness, kindness;21 peaceable,22 mild and courteous speeches and behaviour;23 forbearance, readiness to be reconciled, patient bearing and forgiving of injuries, and requiting good for evil;24 comforting and succouring the distressed and protecting and defending the innocent.25
- Ephesians 5:28-29
- 1 Kings 18:4
- Jeremiah 26:15-16; Acts 23:12, 16-17, 21, 27
- Ephesians 4:26-27
- 2 Samuel 2:22; Deuteronomy 22:8
- Matthew 4:6-7; Proverbs 1:10-11, 15-16
- 1 Samuel 24:12; 1 Samuel 26:9-11; Genesis 37:21-22
- Psalm 82:4; Proverbs 24:11-12; 1 Samuel 14:45
- James 5:7-11; Hebrews 12:9
- 1 Thessalonians 4:11; 1 Peter 3:3-4; Psalm 37:8-11
- Proverbs 17:22
- Proverbs 25:16, 27
- 1 Timothy 5:23
- Isaiah 38:21
- Psalm 127:2
- Ecclesiastes 5:12; 2 Thessalonians 3:10, 12; Proverbs 16:20
- Ecclesiastes 3:4, 11
- 1 Samuel 19:4-5; 1 Samuel 22:13-14
- Romans 13:10
- Luke 10:33-34
- Colossians 3:12-13
- James 3:17
- 1 Peter 3:8-11; Proverbs 15:1; Judges 8:1-3
- Matthew 5:24; Ephesians 5:2, 32; Romans 12:17
- 1 Thessalonians 5:14; Job 31:19-20; Matthew 25:35-36; Proverbs 31:8-9